Citizenship Amendment Bill 2016 – An Overview

Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016
A joint parliamentary committee, comprising members of both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, will examine the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, the Press Information Bureau of the government announced on 16th September. The committee will be chaired by Satyapal Singh


Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016
The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of Home Affairs, Mr. Rajnath Singh, on July 19, 2016.  The Bill seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955.
Backround
The Citizenship Act, 1955 provides various ways in which citizenship may be acquired.  It provides for citizenship by birth, descent, registration, naturalisation and by incorporation of territory into India.
Why the Act needs to be amended?
While it is difficult for a country to demarcate its citizens from non-citizens at its inception as a unified whole, this problem was further accentuated in India for two reasons. One, the large scale movement of people during partition broadly on religious contours and second, the recurrent influx of immigrants and refugees owing to domestic instability in neighboring countries.
The problem here is not with the flexibility of the rules, but the applicability of the amendments on purely religious lines. The Citizenship Act of 1955 denies citizenship rights to any illegal immigrant, whereby an ‘illegal immigrant’ is defined as a person who (i) enters India without a valid passport or with forged documents, or (ii) who stays in the country beyond the visa permit.
Objectives of the Bill
ü  The object of the proposed Bill is to enable Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians who have fled to India from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh without valid travel documents, or those whose valid documents have expired in recent years, to acquire Indian citizenship by the process of naturalisation. Under the Bill, such persons shall not be treated as illegal immigrants for the purpose of the Citizenship Act.
ü  The Bill further reduces the requirement of 11 years to acquire “citizenship by naturalisation” to only six years of ordinary residence for such immigrants. In simpler terms, this means that a Hindu from Pakistan can cross the border illegally and simply claim Indian citizenship after six years
What does constitution say about citizenship?
Articles 5 to 11 of the Indian Constitution deal citizenship. Article 6 confers citizenship to people who migrated to what is now India after the announcement of partition, whereas article 7 grants citizenship to individuals who migrated to Pakistan after the announcement of partition but returned to India later on. Those included in the second category had to go through an elaborate process of registration before they could be awarded citizenship rights. These provisions have deep religious markers attached to them. While article 6 was directed towards Pakistani Hindus who had moved to India, article 7 implicitly referred to the Indian Muslims who had left India during the violence of partition but wanted to return to claim back their lives, livelihood and property.
Parliament will have the right to regulate citizenship. ?
Article 11 clarifies that Parliament will have the right to regulate citizenship. The Citizenship Amendment Act of 2003 added a further category of overseas Indian citizens, who however will not have all the rights of full-fledged citizens.
What is Assam Accord?
The accord was signed to end a six-year-long mass movement demanding detection and deportation of illegal immigrants, mostly from Bangladesh, who threatened the culture, identity and economic future of the indigenous people of Assam, successive central and state governments have failed to implement key clauses of the agreement.
The accord was signed between the central and Assam governments on one side and the All Assam  Students’ Union (AASU) and the now defunct All Aasam Gana Sangram Parishad (AAGSP), who spearheaded the movement, on the other, in the presence of then prime minister Rajiv Gandhi.
According to the accord, all foreigners who entered Assam illegally on or after March 25, 1971, would be detected, their names deleted from the electoral rolls and then deported under the provisions of the Foreigners Act, 1946 and the Foreigners (Tribunals) Order, 1964.
Related Facts
Clause 6A of the Citizenship Act, inserted into the principal Act vide the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 1985, deals with the special provisions related to citizenship of persons under the Assam Accord.
Criticism of the bill
ü  The priority of any government should be to protect its citizens. Recent studies based on the population growth till 2001 said indigenous population of Assam would become a minority by 2040 or 2047. Due to illegal immigration from the neighbouring countries.
ü  The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill also fails on the tenets of international refugee law. Although India is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention, granting refuge based on humanitarian considerations is arguably a norm of customary international law. There are two fallacies with the proposed law in this regard. First, the Bill terms minority religious people as migrants, when they are not migrants but refugees. 
ü  The purpose and intention of the Bill, as stated by the home minister, is to provide shelter to vulnerable, religiously persecuted people whose fundamental human rights are at risk. The correct terminology is important because the laws and policies for migrants and refugees are entirely different.
ü  shelter to individuals of  a select religion defeats not only the intention but also the rationality of refugee policy. If the motive of the government is to protect religiously persecuted people in the neighbourhood, the question of why they are ignoring the Muslim community is inevitable. Muslims are considerably discriminated against and exploited in the neighbouring countries of China, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Their demands for asylum in India have fallen on deaf ears. The 36,000 Rohingyas Muslims from Myanmar who fled to India in the wake of 2015 insurgency is just one such example.
ü  The proposed act also violates India’s long-standing refugee policy. Although India does not have a codified refugee policy, the basic tenants of the scheme were listed by Jawaharlal Nehru during the Tibetan refugee crisis. One of the primary conditions given then was that refugees would have to return to their homeland once normalcy prevailed. The proposed law not only provides citizenship rights to such refugees, but greatly relaxes the procedure to avail of them. From reducing the registration fees to Rs 100 from Rs 3000 to delegating the authority from the Union government to district magistrate for speedy processing of  applications, the proposed law serves citizenship to illegal immigrants on a platter.
ü  Notwithstanding the tampering of domestic law with religious markers, the proposed Bill, if passed, will also put our international relations in jeopardy. The Bill will stamp these countries as institutions of religious oppression and worsen bilateral ties in an already skewed regional socio-political atmosphere.
Sources

     The Hindu, Times of India, PRS 

Current Affairs For UPSC / PIB and HINDU Updates/ Genetically Modified Crops/ Special Categories status PDF

Press Information Bureau and Hindu News Related Articles

Genetically Modified Crops/ Special Categories status related  

The Environment Ministry has clarified that the Sub-Committee drawn up by GEAC has experts in subjects relevant to safety evaluation of GE crops.

Genetically Modified Crops Approval in India

In India, application of biotechnology in agriculture is being dealt with by three different Ministries/Departments: (1) Ministry of Agriculture; (2) Ministry of Environment and Forests; and (3) Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology. The legislative framework on agrobiotechnology rests mainly with the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. Under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the Ministry of Environment and Forests has notified the Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Micro Organisms/ Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells, 1989, or in short, the Rules, 1989. These rules and regulations cover the areas of research as well as large scale applications of the 7 GMOs and such products throughout India. These rules also define the competent authorities and composition of such authorities for handling of various aspects of the rules. Presently, there are six competent authorities

Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC)
The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) is the apex body constituted in the Ministry of Environment and Forests under ‘Rules for Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells 1989’, under the Environment Protection Act, 1986. The Rules of 1989 also define five competent authorities i.e. the Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBSC), Review Committee of Genetic Manipulation (RCGM), Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC) and District Level Committee (DLC) for handling of various aspects of the rules

Competent Authorities dealing with the GMOs

  • Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC): The functions are of an advisory nature and involve review of developments in biotechnology at national and international levels and recommend suitable and appropriate safety regulations for India in recombinant research, use and applications from time to time.
  • Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM) established under the Department of Biotechnology, ministry of Science and technology  is to monitor the safety related aspects in respect of on-going research projects and activities (including small scale field trials) and bring out manuals and guidelines specifying procedure for regulatory process with respect to activities involving geneti­cally engineered organisms in research, use and applications including industry with a view to ensure environmental safety.
  • Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) established under MoEFCC is the apex body to accord notified under Rules 1989. For approval of activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recom­binants in research and industrial production from the environ­mental angle. The GEAC is also responsible for ap­proval of proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment including experimen­tal field trials (Biosafety Research Level trial-I and II known as BRL-I and BRL-II).
  • State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC’s) have a major role in monitoring. It also has powers to inspect, investigate and take punitive action in case or violations of statutory provisions.

  • District Level Committees (DLCs) have a major role in monitoring the safety regulations in installations engaged in the use of genetically modified organisms/hazardous microorganisms and its applications in the environment.
    • Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC) is established under the institution engaged in GMO research to oversee such research and to interface with the RCGM in regulating it.
    Present scenario of genetically modified crops in India
    India has the fourth largest area planted under genetically modified (GM) crops, according to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA).
    Farmers in India planted a total 11.6 million hectares (mh) under transgenics in 2014, behind the corresponding areas for Argentina (24.3 mh), Brazil (42.2 mh) and the US (73.1 mh). The GM crop acreage in India far surpassed China’s 3.9 mh, while equalling that of Canada’s 11.6 mh.



    ISAAA, a New York-based crop biotech advocacy group, has estimated the total global area under GM crops to have touched 181.5 mh last year, up from 175.2 mh in 2013.
    Since 1996, when farmers first commercially planted transgenics, the area under these crops has risen more than hundredfold from 1.7 mh to 181.5 mh. It represents the fastest ever adoption of any technology in agriculture, said Bhagirath Choudhary, Director at ISAAA’s South Asia Office.
    Significantly, the entire 11.57 mh GM crop area in India last year consisted of Bt cotton. Nearly 96 per cent of the country’s cotton area is now covered by Bt hybrids. Bt technology has helped India to treble its cotton output from 13 million bales in 2002 (when it was introduced) to 40 million bales in 2014.
    An agreement to develop Bt brinjal was signed in 2005 between Mahyco—American agricultural biotech giant Monsanto’s Indian Bt cotton partner—and two Indian agricultural universities. Following the study of biosafety data and field trials by two expert committees, Bt brinjal was cleared for commercialization by India’s top biotech regulator, the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee, in 2009. But nothing came of it, with moratoriums imposed by then Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh and his successor Jayanthi Natarajan following opposition from civil society groups and brinjal-growing states.
    The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, (Ministry of Agriculture) had set up a Task Force under the Chairmanship of Prof. M.S. Swaminathan to formulate a long term policy on Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture in May 2003. The Swaminathan Task Force recommended the establishment by an Act of Parliament an autonomous, statutory and professionally led National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority. This is essential for inspiring public, political, professional and media confidence in the procedures adopted for measuring risks and benefits.
    As per the recommendation contained in the Report of the Task Force, the Government formulated the National Biotechnology Development Strategy in November 2007. The Strategy, while enabling the full utilization of currently available opportunities in manufacturing and services, inter alia would lay a strong foundation for discovery and innovation, effectively utilizing novel technology platforms with potential to contribute to long term benefits in agriculture, animal productivity, human health, environmental security and sustainable industrial growth. The stated vision of the Strategy is responsible use of life sciences and biotechnology to promot
    e balanced growth of all sections of the society
    Related Legislation
    The Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India (BRAI) bill 2013
    • The Bill sets up an independent authority, the Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India (BRAI), to regulate organisms and products of modern biotechnology.
    • BRAI will regulate the research, transport, import, containment, environmental release, manufacture, and use of biotechnology products.
    • Regulatory approval by BRAI will be granted through a multi-level process of assessment undertaken by scientific experts. 
    • BRAI will certify that the product developed is safe for its intended use.  All other laws governing the product will continue to apply. 
    • A Biotechnology Regulatory Appellate Tribunal will hear civil cases that involve a substantial question relating to modern biotechnology and hear appeals on the decisions and orders of BRAI.
    • Penalties are specified for providing false information to BRAI, conducting unapproved field trials, obstructing or impersonating an officer of BRAI and for contravening any other provisions of the Bill. 
    CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY
    India is a party to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity signed at Rio de Janeiro on the 5th day of June, 1992 which came into force on the 29thDecember, 1993;
    The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety  (CPB), the first international regulatory framework for safe transfer, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) was negotiated under the aegis of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).The protocol was adopted on 29th January 2000.  With Palau acceding to the Protocol, the required number of 50 instruments of ratification /accession /approval /acceptance by countries was reached in May 2003. The Protocol entered into force on 11 September 2003.  Currently 169 countries are Parties to the Protocol.
    The objective of the Protocol is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of LMOs resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements.
    The Protocol promotes biosafety by establishing rules and procedures for the safe transfer, handling, and use of LMOs. It includes Advance Informed Agreement (AIA) procedures for imports of LMOs for intentional introduction into the environment, and also incorporates the precautionary approach, and mechanisms for risk assessment and risk management. The Protocol establishes a Biosafety Clearing-House (BCH) to facilitate information exchange, and contains provisions on capacity building and financial resources, with special attention to developing countries and those without domestic regulatory systems The Protocol attempts to reconcile the respective needs of trade and environmental protection in the light of rapidly growing biotechnology industry. The Protocol addresses the obligations of Parties in relation to the transboundary movements of LMOs to and from non-Parties to the Protocol.
    What are genetically modified (GM) organisms and GM foods?
    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. The technology is often called “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology”, sometimes also “recombinant DNA technology” or “genetic engineering”. It allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between nonrelated species. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.
    Dr Jitendra Singh to release the NEC Coffee Table Book “North Eastern Council: A Story of Sagacity and Success”
    NEC, set up in 1971 as a Regional Advisory Body under the North Eastern Council Act, 1971, has been transformed into a Regional Planning Body in 2002. In the recent years, the NEC has been instrumental in successful execution of Government of India’s regional plans for the NER.
    NITI Ayog Ruled out Special Category States / News in Recently A.P demanding Special category States 
    What is the meaning of Special Category States?
    The concept of a SCS was first introduced in 1969 when the 5th Finance Commission sought to provide certain disadvantaged states with preferential treatment in the form of central assistance and tax breaks.
    The Central Government assistance to states (apart from sharing the central tax revenue) has many components. Some of them are
    ü  Normal Central Assistance (NCA) allocated to States as per Gadgil formula.
    ü  Additional Central Assistance (ACA) – provided for implementation of externally aided projects. Unlike NCA, this is Scheme based.
    ü  Special Central Assistance (SCA) – provided for special projects/programmes e.g., Western Ghats Development Programme, Border Areas Development Programme etc.
    ü  Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) – are special purpose grants extended by the Central Government to States to attain certain national goals. Schemes such as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA), Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(MNREGS), Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission(JNNURM) are some of the examples.
    The issue of Special Category Status came up at the time of approval of the Gadgil Formula at the meeting of the National Development Council (NDC) held in April, 1969. The special status was granted to eleven of the 29 states of India comprise what is collectively called the “Special Category States”. These states are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand. Eight of these states constitute the north-eastern part of India; the three that lie outside the region are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. By and large, these impoverished and mostly resource-starved states lay at the periphery of India’s economic development. They were created at different points of time in the history of independent India1 to accommodate the socio-economic as well as the ethnocultural aspirations of their respective peoples who were handicapped in various ways.
    Why Special Categories Status Given?
    Thus the main reason behind this categorization is the development of that particular state where there are many problems due to hilly terrains, international borders etc as there cannot be good industrial development and the finances of the state are also less, thus the centre government comes into picture. 90% of the central assistance is treated as grant and remaining 10% is considered as loan unlike other states which get 30% grant and 70% loan.
    The special category states have some distinct characteristics. They have international boundaries, hilly terrains and have distinctly different socio-economic developmental parameters. These states have also geographical disadvantages in their effort for infrastructural development. Public expenditure plays a significant role in the Gross State Domestic Product of the states. The states in the North-East are also late starters in development. In view of the above problems, central government sanctions 90 percent in the form of grants in plan assistance to the states in special category. The most important prescription for special category states is interest free loan with rationalization of public expenditure based on growth enhancing sectoral allocation of resources
    Which Organization responsible for providing Special Category States?
    The decision to grant special category status lies with the National Development Council, composed of the Prime Minster, Union Ministers, Chief Ministers and members of the Planning Commission (replaced by NITI Aayog)
    Parmeteters For Special category States
    ü  Hilly and difficult terrain
    ü  Low population density and / or sizeable share of tribal population
    ü  Strategic locations along the borders with neighbouring countries
    ü  Economic and infrastructural backwardness
    ü  Non-viable nature for state finances.
    Benefits to Special Category States (SCS)
    The nature of benefits to Special Category states will help us understand why many states crave for this status. The major benefits of SCS are
    • A major portion of the Normal Central Assistance (56.25%) is distributed to eleven Special Category States and the remaining (43.75%) among eighteen General Category States.
    • Only Special Category States receive Special Plan Assistance and Special Central Assistance grants.
    • The assistance for Externally Aided Projects (EAPs) flows to Special category States as 90 per cent grant whereas for General Category States, it flows as loans.
    • The state share in Centrally Sponsored Schemes is usually lower for Special Category States, especially the States of North East region as compared to General Category States.
    • Special-category states get a significant excise duty concession & other such tax breaks that attract industries to relocate/locate manufacturing units within their territory.
    Apart from the central assistance, the states receive a significant amount of revenue from the transfer of central taxes. The current share of states in the net collection of central tax revenue is 32% (to be increased to 42% as per the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission). There isno preferential treatment to SCS when it comes to sharing of the central tax revenue.
    How many states having Special category status?
    At present there are 11 States that enjoy Special Status and Special Category Status: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand.
    Different between the terms ‘Special Status’ and ‘Special Category Status’?
    Special status is guaranteed by the Constitution of India through an Act passed by the two-third majority in both houses of the Parliament, as in the case of Jammu and Kashmir, whereas Special Category Status is granted by the National Development Council, an administrative body of the government. While Special Status empowers legislative and political rights, Special Category Status deals only with economic, administrative and financial aspects.
    14th finance commission and special category states?
    The class ‘special category’ does not exist anymore, after the 14th Finance Commission (FFC) removed the distinction between general and special category states, given that it had factored in the levels of backwardness to devolve funds to states.
    It has to be continued?
    It is perhaps time to take a relook at the whole arrangement regarding the award of special category status to
    a state and its continuation in perpetuity. Given the emphasis that is being placed in good governance, accountability and transparency, equity and efficiency all over, it will serve the purposes of development much better if the status is reviewed and a targetbased time-bound approach is adopted for assistance from the central plan funds. Once the targets are achieved, the assistance may continue for a further term and in the event of failure the assistance can be diverted to another state that is in need of development. A target-oriented formula-based approach for assistance instills accountability, improves performance, removes complacency and helps a state move rapidly forward by providing incentives for better performance. It also makes the field more level for all players, with open entry and exit to the special status for all.
    Raghuram Rajan panel to determine which States need special assistance.
    A panel headed by Raghuram Rajan in 2013 has recommended a new index of backwardness to determine which States need special assistance.
    The new methodology ranks Odisha as India’s most backward State, Bihar, which has been seeking ‘special’ status, as the second most backward, and Gujarat as one of the “less developed” States. Goa is India’s most developed State.
    Methodology
    The Committee suggested a multi-dimensional index of backwardness, which is an average of the following subcomponents:
        i.        monthly per-capita consumption expenditure,
      ii.        education,
    iii.        health (infant mortality rate),
     iv.        household amenities (drinking water, sanitation, etc),
       v.        poverty rate,
     vi.        female literacy,
    vii.        percent of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population,
    viii.        urbanisation rate,
     ix.        financial inclusion (percentage of households with banking facility), and
       x.        connectivity (highways, roads, etc).
    Recommendations of the Committee
    ü suggested a new methodology for devolving funds on states based on a ‘Multi Dimensional Index (MDI)’.The committee has suggested that the 28 states be split into three categories – least developed, less developed and relatively developed – depending upon their ‘Multi Dimensional Index (MDI) scores.
    ü The Committee recommended that the index be updated every five years, and the index and formula be re-examined every ten years.
    ü It recommended that states with a score of 0.6 or above be deemed “least developed” states, and may be provided additional forms of assistance by the central government.
    ü The Committee stated that its twin recommendations of 0.3% of total funds as allocation to each state and categorisation of states with scores above 0.6 as “least developed” ensures that the needs of “special category” states are met, and effectively subsumes “special category”. However, the Committee also stated in its recommendations that allocation schemes based on existing categorisations such as those for Special Category states can continue in parallel to the proposed allocations.
    ü Based on the MDI scores, the 10 least developed States are Odisha, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
    ü The seven most developed States are Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand and Haryana.

    UPSC Current Affairs / “Fierce but Fragile, Coexistence in a changing world”/Hindu

    Just an Try 
    “Fierce but Fragile, Coexistence in a changing world”/Hindu
    A report released by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has warned that the big cats are still not out of danger due to shrinking forest land which are converted into motorways and other infrastructure that cut through their habitat.

    The report   also identified human-wildlife conflict as a key problem in the Terai regions of of India and Nepal, stressing on well-developed conservation programmes.
    India is home to nearly 70 per cent of the world’s big cats in the wild. According to the latest 2014 census, the country has 2,226 tigers in the wild across the country, a 30 per cent in increase over the 2010 estimation of 1,706 tigers. There are about 3,890 tigers in the wild across the world as against more than one lakh in 1900.
    IUCN says its Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Programme (ITHCP) aims to ensure the survival of tigers in the wild by working with local communities to reduce human-tiger conflict and the over-exploitation of forests, as well as managing tiger habitats and combating poaching.
    Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Programme
    Supported by the German Government, the German Development Bank (KfW) and IUCN launched the Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Programme (ITHCP) in 2014. ITHCP is a strategic funding mechanism which aims to save tigers in the wild, their habitats and to support human populations in key locations throughout Asia. The programme contributes to the international goal set up during the 2010 St- Petersburg Tiger Summit to double wild tiger populations by 2022. IUCN, the programme implementing agency.
    ITHCP has a current portfolio of 8 projects located within Tiger Conservation Landscapes (TCLs), which are areas universally considered as the most crucial for long term tiger conservation.
    Key Objectives
    These projects involve improving the management of tiger habitats, tackling human-tiger conflicts, increasing anti-poaching and law enforcement efforts and engaging and actively involving local communities in tiger conservation. An average 26 % of project funds is dedicated to infrastructural investments and 13 % of project budgets is to provide local communities with sustainable livelihoods, e.g. with clean energy sources, predator-proof protection systems and development of ecotourism ventures.
    India,s Place
    The Terai “low-lying land at the foot of the Himalayas”, stretches from Corbett NP in the West until Kaziranga NP in the East, throughout India, Nepal and Bhutan, is a focal area of the programme.
    Global Tiger Recovery Program
    The overarching goal adopted in the Hua Hin Declaration and supported by the GTRP is to reverse the rapid decline of wild tigers and to strive to double the number of wild tigers across their range by 2022. The GTRP was launched by heads of governments at the St. Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010.
    The objectives of the GTRP are
              ð          Effectively manage, preserve, protect, and enhance tiger habitats;
              ð          Eradicate poaching, smuggling, and illegal trade of tigers, their parts, and derivatives;
              ð          Cooperate in transboundary landscape management and in combating illegal trade;
              ð          Engage with indigenous and local communities;
              ð          Increase the effectiveness of tiger and habitat management;
              ð          Explore and mobilize domestic and new funding; and
              ð          Bring back tigers to their former range.
    Financial Needs and Mechanisms
    TRCs plan to explore and mobilize new and domestic funding, including from such sources as new financing based on forest carbon financing including REDD+, payment for ecosystem services schemes, promotion of ecotourism, and private sector, donor, and NGO partnerships.
    Biosphere Reserves
    Biosphere Reserves (BRs) are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof and representative examples of bio-geographic zones/provinces.
     Criteria for designation of BR
    Ø  A site that must contain an effectively protected and
    minimally disturbed core area of value of nature conservation.
    Ø  The core area should be typical of a bio-geographical unit and large enough to sustain viable populations representing all trophic levels in the ecosystem.
    Ø  The management authority to ensure the involvement/cooperation of local communities to bring variety of knowledge and experiences to link biodiversity conservation and  socio-economic development while managing and containing the conflicts. 
    Ø  Areas potential for preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for harmonious use of environment.
    International Status of Biosphere Reserves (BR)
    The UNESCO has introduced the designation ‘Biosphere Reserve’ for natural areas to minimize conflict between development and conservation. BRs are nominated by national government which meet a minimal set of criteria and adhere to minimal set of conditions for inclusion in the world network of Biosphere reserves under the Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme of UNESCO. Globally 621 BRs representing from 117 countries included in the network so far.
    The concept of Biosphere Reserves, especially its zonation, into Core Area(s) ( dedicated to conservation), Buffer Area(s) (sustainable use) and Transition Area(s) (equitable sharing of benefits) were later broadly adopted under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD ) process which entered into force on 29th December, 1993.
    Structure and functions of BR:
    Biosphere reserves are demarcated into following 3 inter-related zones:
    Core Zone
    Core zone must contain suitable habitat for numerous plant and animal species, including higher order predators and may contain centres of endemism. Core areas often conserve the wild relatives of economic species and also represent important genetic reservoirs having exceptional scientific interest. A core zone being National Park or Sanctuary/protected/regulated mostly under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Whilst realizing that perturbation is an ingredient of ecosystem functioning, the core zone is to be kept free from l human pressures external to the system.
    Buffer Zone
    The buffer zone, adjoins or surrounds core zone, uses and activities are managed in this area in the ways that help in protection of core zone in its natural condition. These uses and activities include restoration, demonstration sites for enhancing value addition to the resources, limited recreation, tourism, fishing, grazing, etc; which are permitted to reduce its effect on core zone. Research and educational activities are to be encouraged. Human activities, if natural within BR, are likely to continue if these do not adversely affect the ecological diversity.
    Transition Zone
    The transition area is the outermost part of a biosphere reserve. This is usually not delimited one and is a zone of cooperation where conservation knowledge and management skills are applied and uses are managed in harmony with the purpose of the biosphere reserve.  This includes settlements, crop lands, managed forests and area for intensive recreation and other economic uses characteristics of the region.
    What are the current efforts being made to save the tiger?
    India is home to 70 per cent of global tiger population. Therefore, the country has an important role to play in tiger conservation. The Government of India started ‘Project Tiger’ in 1972 with a view to conserving the animal. As part of this project nine core buffer areas for maintaining tiger population were notified. Now, this has expanded to 48 tiger reserves.
    CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)
    Besides protecting tiger territory, other measures being taken to save the tiger include: curbing wildlife trade through international agreements. CITES is an international agreement between governments aimed at ensuring that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants, including tigers, does not threaten their survival. India ratified this treaty in 1976.
    Global Tiger Forum (inter-governmental tiger conservation network)
    Established in 1994, the Global Tiger Forum is the only inter-governmental body for tiger conservation. Its membership includes seven tiger range countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Cambodia, Myanmar, Nepal and Vietnam. International NGO members consist of World Wildlife Fund, International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), and TRAFFIC. Several national NGOs from India and Nepal are also members.
    About IUCN
    Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network. It harnesses the experience, resources and reach of its 1,300 Member organisations and the input of some 16,000 experts. IUCN is the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it. Our experts are organised into six commissions dedicated to species survival, environmental law, protected areas, social and economic policy, ecosystem management, and education and communication.
    How does IUCN work?
    IUCN governance is by a Council elected by member organizations every four years at the IUCN World Conservation Congress- the general assembly of the Union’s members. The Council is comprised of the Chairs of IUCN’s six Commissions, three Regional Councilors from each of IUCN’s eight Statutory Regions, and a Councilor from the State in which IUCN has its seat (Switzerland). IUCN congresses have produced several key international environmental agreements including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the World Heritage Convention, and the Ramsar Convention on wetlands
    It is the only organisation being the observer in UN general assembly with experts in environment and sustainable development. It also runs field project to create awareness about the environment. the head office of IUCN located in Gland Switzerland.

    STUDY SCHEDULE FOR UPSC FROM MAY 21 TO 31

    Dear Friends I have prepared Study Schedule for 11 Days, kindly follow it we have nearly 70 days only

    Polity
    Date
    Polity
    Book List
    21.05.2016
                        Central Government: President, Vice President, Prime minister, Central Council of Ministers, Parliament
                        Emergency Provisions
                        Local Government: Panchayati Raj, Local Urban Government
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    22.05.2016
                        State Government: Governor, Chief Minister, State Council of Ministers,  State Legislature
    Indian Federalism and Centre-State Relations
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    23.05.2016
                        Constitutional & Non Constitutional Bodies
                        Elections and political parties: problems and processes
                        Electoral politics
                        Working of the political system since independence
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    24.05.2016
                        Judiciary: Supreme Court, High Courts, Subordinate Courts
    Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive; Ministries and Departments of the ministry
       
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    25.05.2016
                        Political systems: concepts, forms and types
                        Political   system as         established      by    the Constitution
                        Indian      Constitution:  Historical Underpinnings, Evolution & Making of the Constitution, Features, Significant Provisions
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    26.05.2016
                        The Preamble
                        The Union and its Territory
                        Citizenship
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    27.05.2016< o:p>
    Fundamental Rights
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    28.05.2016
                        Directive Principles & Fundamental Duties
      Class IX and X NCERT:
    Democratic Politics
      11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    29.05.2016
                        Amendment of Constitution
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    – Law ministry Website
    30.05.2016
                        Governance
                        Good Governance, e-Governance
                        Transparency & Accountability
                        RTI, Citizen’s Charter & Anti-Corruption
                        Civil Society, People participation
                        Reforms: Police Reform, Administrative Reform, Judicial Reform, Political Reform etc
    – Indian Polity by M Laxmikanth
    Indian Governance – by M Laxmikanth
    31.05.2016
    Recent Cases and its Updates ,Judgment ,
    Bills Tabled in  Parliament .
    News paper . for more details  read  Economic and Political Weekly ,
    PRS Website
    Geography
    Date
    Subject
    Book List
    21.05.2016
            Solar System & The Earth: Origin, Geological History, Motions of Earth- Rotation, Revolution
            Lithosphere, Latitude & Longitude,
      11th NCERT Books:
    Fundamental of Physical Geography
      Certificate physical and human
    geography – Goh, Cheng Leong
      Old NCERT Books of Geography
    (Class 6, 7, 8)
    22.05.2016
            The Atmosphere: Structure, Weather & Climate, Solar Radiation, Heat Balance & Temperature, Pressure & Wind, Water in the Atmosphere
            The Hydrosphere: Ocean water and their circulation
      11th NCERT Books:
    Fundamental of Physical Geography
      Certificate physical and human
    geography – Goh, Cheng Leong
      Old NCERT Books of Geography
    (Class 6, 7, 8)
    23.05.2016
            Landforms across the world: Rivers and lakes, Mountain and Peaks, Plateaus
            Geophysical Phenomena: Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Cyclones, Tsunamis
      11th NCERT Books:
    Fundamental of Physical Geography
      Certificate physical and human
    geography – Goh, Cheng Leong
      Old NCERT Books of Geography
    (Class 6, 7, 8)

    24.05.2016
            Soil Geography: Types, Erosion, Conservation
            World Climate Types
      11th NCERT Books:
    Fundamental of Physical Geography
      Certificate physical and human
    geography – Goh, Cheng Leong
      Old NCERT Books of Geography
    (Class 6, 7, 8)
    25.05.2016
            Natural Hazards and Disasters
            Continents (Land, Climate, Resources etc.): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia
      11th NCERT Books:
    Fundamental of Physical Geography
      Certificate physical and human
    geography – Goh, Cheng Leong
      Old NCERT Books of Geography
    (Class 6, 7, 8)
    26.05.2016
    Indian
    Geography
            Introduction: Location, Area and Boundaries
            Structure and Relief: Physiographic Divisions
      9th NCERT:
    Contemporary India
      11th NCERT:
    Geography
      India Physical Environment
    Orient Longman Atlas or Oxford Atlas
    27.05.2016
            Drainage System
            Weather, Climate and Seasons
            Soils
            Natural Vegetation, Plant and Animal Life
      9th NCERT:
    Contemporary India
      11th NCERT:
    Geography
      India Physical Environment
    Orient Longman Atlas or Oxford Atlas
    28.05.2016
            Agriculture
            Land Resources
       &nbs
    p;   
    Water Resources
            Mineral and Energy Resources
    -12th NCERT:
    Geography
    India      People  and Economy
      Certificate Physical and Human Geography
      Goh, Cheng Leong
    12th NCERT:
    Fundamental of Human Geography
    Orient Longman Atlas or Oxford Atlas
    29.05.2016
            Population, Migration, Settlements
            Industries
            Transport and Communication
            Foreign Trade
    -12th NCERT:
    Geography
    India      People  and Economy
      Certificate Physical and Human Geography
      Goh, Cheng Leong
    12th NCERT:
    Fundamental of Human Geography
    Orient Longman Atlas or Oxford Atlas
    30.05.2016
    World Geography
            Physical and Economic
            Human Geography
            World Population, Dis
    tribution & Density, Races & Tribes, Settlement & Migration
    -12th NCERT:
    Geography
    India      People  and Economy
      Certificate Physical and Human Geography
      Goh, Cheng Leong
    12th NCERT:
    Fundamental of Human Geography
    Orient Longman Atlas or Oxford Atlas
    31.05.2016
    Revise geography
    NOTE:
    ü From Above List Daily you have to spend one hour for CSAT paper -2 

    ü Daily Read one chapter from India Yearbook 


    How to prepare Indian economy for civil service preliminary

    How to Prepare Indian Economy for preliminary

    To start the preparation one should start with the basics and go towards the current happenings and their implications….

    • The candidates should start with the Basic Economics Books such as the NCERT Books of class VIII, IX, X, XI, XII. This will be very helpful to them for each stage of examination.

    • The next step is to know about the various Institutions and their coordinated working because it is imperative to know the working areas and the scope of the jurisdictions of various institutions. This will help them in understanding the current happenings.

    • The Candidates, after getting the grip on the institutions, should study and analyse the working of the institutions so that they can understand their relevance in the present context.

    • After doing the aforementioned cases the candidates should start studying the Government Decisions related to the Macro Economic Policies of our Country. The Macro Economic policies are those policies which affect the whole country as a whole.

    • The Newspaper gave the constant update on all the sectors of Economy. The Editorials and the Opinions related to the Economic Policies guides the candidates in making up their world view.

    • The Budget and the Economic Survey and the India Year Book helps the candidates to develop the real insight of the working of the Indian Economy.
    • The real working of the economy has increased many folds and the globalisation had made a global network of working economies. The network of Economies around the world has implications on one another which makes.

    • The Institutions around the world such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organisation and the regional Economic Institutions such as SAARC Bank, Asian Development Banks and the likes are also influencing the Economic Interaction of India with the World.

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